The DPA 2018 was passed pursuant to the EU GDPR to achieve uniformity across the EU in relation to matters of personal data. The unfair contract term regulations too were passed to implement EU directives and I gather that the legal situation across the EU would be fairly uniform in that area as it is designed to be.

But what relation to the EU did the EA2010 have?


1 Answer 1


From the explanatory notes:

  1. Domestic discrimination law has developed over more than 40 years since the first Race Relations Act in 1965. Subsequently, other personal characteristics besides race have been protected from discrimination and similar conduct, sometimes as a result of domestic initiatives and sometimes through implementing European Directives.

  2. The domestic law is now mainly contained in the following legislation (where applicable, as amended):

    • the Equal Pay Act 1970;

    • the Sex Discrimination Act 1975;

    • the Race Relations Act 1976;

    • the Disability Discrimination Act 1995;

    • the Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003;

    • the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003;

    • the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006;

    • the Equality Act 2006, Part 2;

    • the Equality Act (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2007.

  3. The main European Directives affecting domestic discrimination legislation are:

    • Council Directive 2000/43/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin;
    • Council Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation;
    • Council Directive 2004/113/EC implementing the principle of equal treatment between men and women in the access to and supply of goods and services;
    • European Parliament and Council Directive 2006/54/EC on the implementation of the principle of equal opportunities and equal
      treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation
      (recast). Also relevant in this context is Article 157 of the Treaty
      on the Functioning of the European Union.


  1. The Act does not itself implement EU Directives for the first time. It replaces earlier legislation which has implemented EU Directives, most of which is set out in paragraph 4 above.

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