I'm pretty sure that, at least in California, there are anti-discrimination laws in place, and you can't just not hire someone because they belong to X protected class.
But on the other hand, there are literally jobs where it only makes sense to hire based on X. Just some simple examples:
- If there is a role for a little girl in a film (e.g. Little Red Riding Hood), the company will literally not hire a man.
- If there is a role for a native Hawaiian girl (e.g. Nani from Lilo and Stitch), Disney will explicitly not hire an Indian person.
- If there is an opening for a tutor at a Christian Sunday school, they will explicitly not hire a Muslim
- If there's a trans character in a video game, the company may explicitly want to not hire a cis person to voice them.
- When hiring a baby-sitter, one may not want to hire a man to be around their little girl.
- If Bob runs the Society for Promoting Black Excellence, he will specifically want to hire Black people, and not people of any other ethnicity.
I assume all of those scenarios are allowed. But then what makes those scenarios allowed, but other scenarios like "I only want to hire white men at my tech company" not allowed?
P.S.: Please don't get angry at me >.<. I promise I'm not bigoted, I'm just curious how the law addresses this.