Only one of the other answers even brushes against this part of the question, so I'll focus on that, since it's really critical to fully answering the whole question.
Clearly it can't be the case that every federal judge has the right to see all classified material no matter what classification it has (eg Top Secret/SCI etc.)
No, there's this idea of "need to know" where it doesn't matter what classification someone is cleared to see, if they don't have a specific and real need to see the information, they won't get access to it.
A determination within the executive branch in accordance with directives issued pursuant to this order that a prospective recipient requires access to specific classified information in order to perform or assist in a lawful and authorized governmental function.
The above definition comes from a technology standpoint, but it's SOP throughout the whole US government, including the military.
Another way to say it is "This principle states that a user shall only have access to the information that their job function requires, regardless of their security clearance level or other approvals."
The reason for that is risk management. "When access to covered data is broader than what is required for legitimate purposes, there is unnecessary risk of an attacker gaining access to the data."
Generally speaking, a judge doesn't need to know all data covered by security clearances, so they don't get access to all that data. So, no, they can't just "walk up" to a facility with secured documents and demand to see anything they want. However, if there is a requirement for them to access classified data, they can get access through the processes and from the legal rules described by the other answers.