One time I was walking quickly in a park trail for my exercise routine in California, and there were dog owners who didn't leash their dogs or use a 25 foot leash and let them go freely within the 25 feet radius.
So because the trail was narrow and the grass land was limited, when the dogs confronted me and sometimes even bark, I had to stop and wait for the owner to react and pull back the dog, and then I can go forward.
So when it was the 6 or 7 times that had happened, I said to that owner, "isn't he supposed to be on a leash?"
She exclaimed: "NO THEY ARE NORRRROOOOOT (NOT)!"
I was so surprised because I remembered there was some law that said all dogs need to be on leash in public parks in California or in our County.
So I called the park ranger, and the park ranger said yes, that's the law. Upon hearing what the park ranger said on my phone through the speakerphone, the lady with the dog said, "even if it is the law, I am not going to do it" and that she and her husband live in a rich city nearby.
And then she yelled with the top of her lung to the park ranger, "this CRAZY woman comes out of no where, and then...".
So by yelling loudly "CRAZY woman" to the park ranger and to a few other people nearby, is it subject to possible fine and penalty for defamation? I know in some countries in Asia, that is a US$10,000 penalty to falsely claiming somebody is crazy when obviously they are not.