Generally when getting a service from some provider it is implied that that provider has to provide the service they ask money for. If I buy a phone and that phone is broken they have to replace or refund me. If I get a contract for a 100mb/s internet line they have to provide this or I can refuse to pay for it and so on.
I am wondering: How is this with doctors? When have they fulfilled their contract so that I am required to pay them? Say they do a test and completely misread (out of gross incompetence) the result, are they allowed to bill me for the test, or didn't they not provide the service one can expect for that test? If they are unable to come up with a diagnosis that can easily be figured out even by laymen did they fulfill their contract?
I feel like in my country simply the act of seeing a doctor anything they do subsequently has to be paid for independently of the quality of the outcome.
I am interested in Germany primarily but also other jurisdictions out of curiosity.