Questions tagged [language]

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19 votes
2 answers
3k views

In what language(s) are laws written in Puerto Rico?

A comment on the recent question about the possibility of U.S. laws in Spanish mentioned an assumption that Puerto Rican law would be mostly in Spanish. Not being familiar with Puerto Rican law, this ...
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43 votes
3 answers
9k views

If Congress passed a bill written in a language other than English, would it be valid?

Suppose Congress passed a bill written in Spanish and the President signed it. Everything about the bill and the procedures by which it was written and passed were completely normal, other than the ...
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  • 962
15 votes
5 answers
5k views

What does it mean to "hold and enjoy" an office?

US Constitution, Article 1, Section 3, Clause 7: Judgment in Cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
175 views

Can I choose how to pronounce my own name?

This is more a thought experiment than anything else... Let's say my name is 'Alan Temaficoni', and, as a joke, I decide to pronounce 'Alan' as 'Professor', making my name sound like 'Professor ...
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25 votes
5 answers
8k views

Is it legal for employers to hire only native speakers?

I recently learned that there are some companies (for instance, certain editing, writing, or translation services) that explicitly refuse to hire non-native English speakers for certain positions a ...
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6 votes
2 answers
836 views

Are exercises in language books copyrighted?

Good afternoon, I am working on a language app to learn languages, and I was thinking to include sentences and dialogues for the users to practice their languages.
 My question is: can I re-use, and ...
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0 votes
1 answer
26 views

Using lyrics in an app to learn languages

I am working on an app to learn languages, and beside the usual texts, dialogues, and lists of words, I was thinking to include also written lyrics of famous songs, to help the users practicing the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
67 views

Why does 48 U.S.C. § 864 require English in Puerto Rican federal court if the US has no official language?

The US famously has no official language, and federal courts in removal jurisdiction are required to apply state law (which applies equally to Puerto Rico—48 U.S.C. § 864). Given that Puerto Rico's ...
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3 votes
2 answers
106 views

Are sentences taught in the context of language learning copyrighted on youtube? Or in any other setting?

I am a college student aspiring to learn Chinese. Youtube has a wealth of resources available for learning Chinese - intructors, videos with subtitles, example sentences, movies... I was wondering the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
150 views

If the US has no officially recognized language, what's stopping me from submitting forms in other, potentially much less widespread languages?

As the title states, I realized today the USA doesn't have an officially recognized language, which implies (to me) that I can submit forms in any language if I so chose - the most obvious example ...
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-7 votes
1 answer
279 views

Legal term for (novel?) technique -- "Use of Force", "Tactical Language", or for intel analysts -- if some police repeat some info on licence plates? [closed]

TL;Dr: The legal issue may be that there is a need to name the law enforcement issue. Is it called "repeating license plates"? Is there a name for the activity, so normal people can describe ...
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-5 votes
2 answers
532 views

Are Parent-to-Child death threats legal exceptions?

Is it legal for a parent to make a death threat to their child verbally, to "keep them in line"? Is a parent threatening a child with death an exception, if they said it was "from love ...
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8 votes
5 answers
2k views

Is there any (which?) English speaking jurisdiction that uses a civil (continental) law system?

I am trying to develop an artificial legal reasoning system. I am using the English language for it, but I want/need to develop it (firsthand) for the civil/continental law system, not for the common ...
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1 vote
1 answer
46 views

Is including the text of an email in a document attached to the same email indicative of litigious intent?

I began having conversations with a consulting firm which approached me with an offer of services. I liked the presentation and expressed willingness to look over the agreement and consider the offer. ...
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  • 13
13 votes
4 answers
6k views

What effect does bad English have on warnings / disclaimers?

I've come across more than one case of ill-phrased 'legalese' and often wondered where the line is with respect to enforcibalilty etc. For example, a McDonalds promotion which disclaimed: "Offer ...
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2 votes
3 answers
163 views

Are hospitals required to provide language interpreters to patients?

California, USA. The hospital is on COVID lockdown, no visitors allowed. The patient had a stroke, lost her English, but seem to understand her native language; she slowly and barely coherently speaks ...
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1 vote
0 answers
41 views

Regarding German Patent attorney candidates

I'm thinking about becoming a German and European patent attorney. I'm fluent in German (my mother language), English and French, (and Romanian, my other mother language). The issue is that I have a ...
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5 votes
2 answers
2k views

Does a grammatical error in a license annul the statement?

In a license for commercial software, I have recently encountered the following perl pearl of perspicuous and immaculate syntax: [company] does not warrant that use of the Software will operate ...
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  • 163
0 votes
2 answers
128 views

Opposite of "Ignorantia juris non excusat" (ignorance of the law excuses not)

The title of this question is about how being ignorant of the law is not an excuse for violating it. However, I believe being ignorant of the law is sometimes applicable as a defense. I am curious ...
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  • 101
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

What proof of language skills is required for simplified naturalization as a Hungarian?

Hungary provides for a simplified naturalization procedure for spouses of Hungarian citizens. With this procedure, there is no requirement that the applicant be or have been resident in Hungary; it ...
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2 votes
1 answer
158 views

Language dispute between two countries

Let's imagine there are two countries Molandia and Rolandia. Both speaking the same language, but as they are nationalist countries, that language is named respectively molandese in Molandia and ...
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  • 185
0 votes
2 answers
189 views

Why is no language in the world defined by one single official entity?

As I understand, languages are mutable and shaped by their usage and the need for newer terms. The definitions of single words and expressions aren't always clearly defined by dictionaries. There are ...
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0 votes
2 answers
60 views

does the phrase below mean a 'No Comment' notification must be received?

Project Co shall implement the plan submitted in accordance with Section 4.6(a)(iii) upon receipt of a NO COMMENT notification from Contracting Authority, in accordance with Schedule 10 - Review ...
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  • 1
1 vote
2 answers
153 views

Meaning of "costs throughout to" in a court case?

A judge said, "I would therefore dismiss the appeal with costs throughout to the respondent." Excuse my simple post here. I looked for an answer on google, but could not find any. I would like to ...
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  • 13
1 vote
4 answers
104 views

Which countries' law should be considered for Privacy Policy and Terms of Use in a localized website

Should a multi-language website have different privacy policy and terms of use content for the languages it implements? Or is it just perfectly legal to have a mot-a-mot translation of the base ...
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7 votes
1 answer
140 views

Is it sufficient to provide a privacy policy only in english language?

Regarding GDPR, is it sufficient for a gaming app available in some commercial app store to provide a privacy policy only in english language? Is a translation necessary for every country of the EU ...
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  • 173
2 votes
1 answer
56 views

Is there a difference between "say" and "submit" in court parlance?

In the (senior) courts of England & Wales, a submission given verbally might perhaps be introduced with: We say… or We submit… Strictly speaking, is there some distinction ...
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  • 263
3 votes
1 answer
103 views

Is there a (EU) law that a written contract has to be in a certain language?

I live and work as a freelancer in country A. I am about to sign a contract with a company that has its offices in country B. They therefore insist on having the contract written in language B. Both ...
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  • 131
3 votes
1 answer
115 views

Why do lease agreements commonly prohibit animals and also specifically prohibit reptiles?

I was reading over my lease agreement and noticed the following clause: No animals or reptiles of any kind may be kept in or about the leased premises. I thought it odd that the language seems to ...
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  • 133
2 votes
4 answers
1k views

What are the differences between the terms "act", "law", and "regulation"?

Is there any difference between "act", "law", and "regulation"? Are they interchangeable? Is "law draft" acceptable to use to refer to a "bill"? Is that legalese and common to use in legal documents?
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1 vote
1 answer
791 views

What's the difference between the use of terms "decree" and "decision"?

I have heard that "decree" is only used in the presidential level (Presidential Decree) while in the lower agencies we use "decision", e.g. 'decision of the Minister', 'decision of the Head of People'...
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1 vote
1 answer
57 views

Are the terms "stipulate" and "determine" interchangable in legal texts?

Are "stipulate" and "determine" interchangeable? Can I say, "the Government Regulation is determined by the Presidential Decree", for instance, or simply use "stipulated" instead? I read on the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
118 views

What is the legal interpretation of "does not bear all of the following"?

In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the definition of an abandoned vehicle includes: Motor Vehicle...That is left unattended on or along a highway or other public property for more than forty-...
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4 votes
2 answers
247 views

The controlling language in German employment contracts

I am about to be employed in Germany under an American company which has a branch office in Germany. Recently I got a contract from them that has side-by-side translations with German on the left ...
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  • 172
0 votes
1 answer
55 views

Formal language for victims in criminal cases

Is there a term of art for the "victim" in a criminal case? I've done a bit of searching, but can't really find an accurate answer. Often victims are lumped together with witnesses. The reason that ...
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6 votes
2 answers
20k views

Is it legal to swear at school?

First, is it legal to use profane language in school (specifically a high school in California, United States)? Also, what is the maximum punishment allowed for a student using profanity (assume the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
39 views

What conventions or traditions concern translation of legal abbreviations?

I am currently working on a legal translation, a judgment from Estonian to English. What is the conventional solution with regard to translating abbreviations of acts? In my situation, there's the ...
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  • 31
5 votes
1 answer
350 views

What are the implications of the USA not having an official language?

The USA doesn't have an official language, though in practice everything is in English and some things also in Spanish (and once in a while some services are provided in other languages too). I don't ...
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