Questions tagged [legal-citation]

For all questions about the style and practice of legal citations, whether it be to cases, legislative material, or any other source in the context of legal writing.

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Can a court’s decision be copyrighted?

See this page: If the citation column does not include a hyperlink, then copyright restrictions prevent BAILII from publishing the judgment (missing cases may be available on other commercial/...
TylerDurden's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
72 views

Where can one find the full decisional text of R v Hale (1979) 68 Cr App R 415, [1979] Crim. L.R. 596? [closed]

Can’t seem to find anything other than bare summaries. Can anyone find it anywhere online? https://lawprof.co/criminal-law/property-offences-cases/r-v-hale-1979-68-cr-app-r-415-1979-crim-l-r-596/
TylerDurden's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
97 views

Why is the crown referenced differently between first instance and appellate hearings?

According to a recent answer, “R” is only used in first instance trials, “the King” or “the Queen” are used in appeals and those are pronounced as you’d expect. Why is this?
TylerDurden's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
3k views

How is “R v. Smith” pronounced?

Is it “Are and smith”? “Rex/Regina and smith”? “The king/queen and smith”? What is the typical convention?
TylerDurden's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
617 views

Is the Supreme Court's in-house citation style manual publicly available?

SCOTUS uses a distinct in-house citation style which, although it has a lot in common with the Bluebook, is not the same (differing in key places) and is as far as I know unique. Is the citation style ...
ezgranet's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
1k views

Does USA have Neutral Citations like those of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and UK?

CANZUK's Neutral Citations all utilize the same formula — does USA have anything alike? I cannot remember who, but some professor wrote that American citations are more baffling than CANZUK's Neutral ...
user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
134 views

How can I tell if a court case exists?

As someone without access to pricy legal search engines, how can I tell if a given case exists? For context, a lawyer was recently found to have cited a number of cases hallucinated by ChatGPT. The ...
Mark's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
47 views

Finding citations

I’ve occasionally asked questions (example) that could be easily answered by Shepard’s Citations—if I still had access.  How should I search for citations of a statute or case without paying Lexis or ...
WGroleau's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
85 views

What is "18 C.J.S., Copyright and Literary Property, § 113"?

I am working on a research paper on copyright, and I was reading O'Rourke vs. RKO Radio Pictures. It cites "18 C.J.S., Copyright and Literary Property, § 113". What is it citing?
user49764's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
38 views

How may one break down this neutral citation “[2022] EW Misc 8 (CC)“ [duplicate]

[2022] EW Misc 8 (CC) Normally instead of EW I would expect to see EWCA. and instead of Misc. I would expect to see Civ. On top of that, what does CC mean in this?
TylerDurden's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
44 views

How are courts' official case law archives distributed and stored?

For example, what medium are they recorded/stored in? Is it a hybrid/mix as technology has evolved? And, does a court automatically receive copies of all other regional courts of the same and higher ...
TylerDurden's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
336 views

What does the citation YEAR Misc NN mean?

The case Bower v Brewdog bears at the top of its bailii page a citation, [2019] EW Misc. 16 (CC), which I would like to break down to. understand. I assume that CC is an abbreviation for County Court (...
TylerDurden's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
93 views

Why do some decisions reference case law that references other case law? Why not just reference the original case law? [duplicate]

I have seen this loads of times as I read through court decisions and case law. I am reading a Decision issued by an appeals court, and the judges cite a case that in turn cites a case. Here is the ...
lgshost's user avatar
  • 25
3 votes
2 answers
119 views

How to decode a citation to a case reporter

Citations to cases are often in the form Style of cause (year, if not reflected in the citation), [citation]. The [citation] element generally will include an abbreviated form of the reporter (e.g., S....
Jen's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
28 views

Are judgments composed of paragraphs or sections?

They seem to comprise numbered segments, but how are these referred to? Is there any conventional notation?
TylerDurden's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
36 views

How are first tier tribunal case reference numbers formulated?

Here is an example of a first tier tribunal case reference number: BIR/00CN/LVE/2012/0001. The case being Scriven & ors v Calthorpe Estates & ors. In the reference, the first section appears ...
TylerDurden's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
56 views

Why is Rakusen v Jepsen cited in that order?

Rakusen v Jepsen is a high profile Rent Repayment Order (RRO) application case, in which the Applicant’s name typically comes before that of the respondent when the case is referred to. In this one, ...
TylerDurden's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
52 views

How are laws organized/structured in Arizona?

How are laws structured/numbered/organized in Arizona? Pursuant to ARS 1-101, we know there are titles and sections, but where can I find how they are organized further? Based on reading, I gather ...
Eliter's user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
1 answer
130 views

How is the practice of non-publication of appeal-court opinions of states and the U.S. not in violation of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendment?

Defendant A is deemed not liable in a suit in light of the facts of the case, fact A, B and C for damages at appeals, but the opinion of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Nth Circuit is officially ...
kisspuska's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is meant by "through YYYY Leg Sess" in universal citations of statutes/laws?

Question Let "YYYY" represent a variable for a given year, what does "through YYYY Leg Sess" at the end of a legal citation mean or signify? Background and Due Diligence In various ...
Doedigo's user avatar
  • 107
15 votes
5 answers
2k views

Why do court opinions list multiple layers of citations?

It is common in for courts to cite case law. But why do they cite or note what their citations cite? Here's an example I just came across: National Business Services, Inc. v. Wright, 2 F. Supp. 2d ...
feetwet's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
113 views

I am writing a service agreement, how do I cite a legal code in the agreement?

I am writing a service agreement, how do I cite a legal code in the agreement? As a company, I need to state what we will do and what the law requires us to do This is the law: cvc 22658 (m) (1) A ...
Katie Miller's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
52 views

What California appellate court case is this call-privacy case?

I am looking for a case where a California appellate court made a factual analysis if the state's confidential communications statutes, Pen. Code § 632, et seq., was applicable where the call was too ...
forgetfuldrafter's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
213 views

Bluebook citation to Virgina Statute

The staute that I am citing: What I think the citation is: Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-30 (2021). However, I am unsure about what the year would be and if there is a supplemental or even what is the ...
Andrew Ryan's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
152 views

How can one find a comprehensive enumeration of all the precedent setting cases that pertain to a particular issue or rulings on a given statute?

how can one find a comprehensive enumeration of all the precedent setting cases that pertain to a particular issue or the application of a particular statute?
JosephCorrectEnglishPronouns's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
457 views

The parties in an appealed criminal case

I have a question with regards to the parties of a criminal case on appeal. In a civil case for example, Adam v Seaside Holdings Ltd, the parties are: Appellant: Adam Respondent: Seaside Holdings Ltd ...
Maxxx's user avatar
  • 173
1 vote
1 answer
110 views

How to cite a supreme court opinion in author-year format

I'm citing the U.S. Supreme Court opinion Brown v Board of Education 347 U.S. 483 in an academic article that uses author-year in text citations. Hence I must deviate from the Bluebook style and ...
user551504's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
783 views

Citing federal court cases as authorities in state court

Do federal court rulings (non-appeal) function as estoppel or persuasive authority for them to be cited as authorities in state court civil complaints when the question at stake relates to state laws?
kisspuska's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
470 views

Citing an employment contract using APA style

I am not sure if this is the right community for what I'm looking for, but here goes. I would like to make an APA style citation of an employment contract using LaTeX document generator for personal ...
user32882's user avatar
  • 145
-1 votes
2 answers
129 views

Why do round brackets signify the judgment date, and square brackets the publication year?

I always mix up the significations of round and square brackets. To wit, why aren't they the other way around? Why do SQUARE round brackets signify the judgment date, and ROUND square brackets the ...
user avatar
18 votes
2 answers
4k views

What are the formal requirements to cite the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in U.S. courts?

I understand that there has been no attempt to broaden protections subject to civil rights in the U.S. on the grounds of human rights so there is likely no example for such a reference, but U.S. ...
kisspuska's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
15 views

Searching New York civil litigation case law

Are civil cases litigated in the state of New York between private businesses back in the 1980s accessible to the general public somewhere somehow, either free or behind a paywall? Say I know that a ...
Greendrake's user avatar
  • 26.8k
1 vote
1 answer
62 views

How to cite a court case found online

I need to cite one court case for a project I am researching. The Chicago Manual of Style says to use Bluebook citation for legal materials. I have a link to the document that I am using, but I am not ...
A Guest's user avatar
  • 11
3 votes
0 answers
94 views

Why do United States Reports take so long to be published?

As an English-trained lawyer, I am used to seeing a decision of the UK Supreme Court (or formerly, the House of Lords) published within roughly a year in Appeal Cases (AC) (and sooner in the Weekly ...
curiousenglishman2's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
754 views

What does "Dispense with formal citation" mean?

What does "Dispense with formal citation" mean? In various moot scenarios, I have observed the use of the phrase: If it pleases the court, may we dispense with formal citation? when ...
global05's user avatar
  • 107
0 votes
2 answers
210 views

Examples of Unethical Experimental Studies

I am teaching ethics in a statistics class. I am looking for examples when deceptive statistical evidence was caught or attempted to be used. For example, is there an example of a party who had ...
Klapheck's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
196 views

Why don't US courts use numbered paragraphs?

Many, if not indeed most, jurisdictions' (eg Germany, the UK, Australia, Canada, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Court of Human Rights) courts make use of numbered ...
curiouseuropean's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
95 views

How to cite an Act of Parliament that varies by jurisdiction?

By way of example, the following is a citation using the OSCOLA style: Companies Act 2006, s 162(7) However, that provision contains different text depending on whether the jurisdiction is ...
JBentley's user avatar
  • 7,659
2 votes
0 answers
32 views

Source for California citations in the form "vc" or "cvc" rather than the Veh. Code form

I have seen many citations of California codes that say things like 'VC § 1234', 'CVC § 1234', "vc sec. 1234", "cvc section 1234" etc, when referring to the Vehicle Code. I've also seen the same style ...
user29102's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
69 views

Have there ever been any cases where someone sued their government for not delivering their passport in a reasonable amount of time?

I am wondering if there have been any cases in Canada that were heard before a court or tribunal, or even if there was any informal dispute that was discussed in any media. Surely many people in the ...
Nike Dattani's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
135 views

To what extent has the legality of property taxes been tested in American courts?

In the United States, many State governments tax land property owners based on the value of the property. These taxes are assessed every year and must be paid or the state will seize your property and ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
75 views

PERB Citation Elements

What does the following mean exactly? (Matter of Freeport Union Free Sch. Dist. [Freeport Educ. Off. Assn.], 31 PERB ¶ 4021 [1998]) From part 1.1 of the NYS Law Reporting Style Manual, I see a ...
Sean DeNigris's user avatar
16 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why is Miller's case titled R (Miller)?

Why is Miller's case titled R (Miller)? R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union The meaning of R is Regina (Queen). This is confusing me. Wasn't the case brought by 'an ...
user24985's user avatar
  • 283
0 votes
1 answer
51 views

Finding court cases involving some organization [closed]

How can I find court cases that involve a given organization (e.g. some company)?
171124's user avatar
  • 69
1 vote
1 answer
265 views

Can only the government official who appointed an employee fire that employee?

In the PolitiFact article Can Donald Trump fire Special Counsel Robert Mueller?, law professor Ric Simmons is quoted: The Supreme Court has stated (outside the special counsel context) that only ...
Charles's user avatar
  • 151
1 vote
1 answer
942 views

Was there a consideration in Merritt v Merritt case agreement?

The Merritt v Merritt case is often used in teaching Contract Law for demonstrating one of the six elements of contract — intention to create legal relations (the parties had been separated and the ...
Greendrake's user avatar
  • 26.8k
2 votes
0 answers
3k views

Correct Bluebook Citation for unpublished U.S. Supreme Court denial of writ of certiorari

I am trying to determine the correct Bluebook citation (footnote - law review article) for a recent U.S. Supreme Court denial of certiorari in which Justice Sotomayor wrote a 'Statement' and Justice ...
Mark D Worthen PsyD's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is this a proper Bluebook citation for a Court of Federal Claims case?

I am a forensic psychologist who happens to prefer Bluebook citation style over APA style. I mention this fact because while I have some experience using Bluebook citation style, it pales in ...
Mark D Worthen PsyD's user avatar