55

Not only is this possible, it has been done. At least in Canada. On July 27th 2013 Sammy Yatim was on board a Toronto Transit bus and began brandishing a knife and threatening passengers. Constable James Forcillo of Toronto Police Service responded, and when Yatim ignored warnings and advanced towards police, Forcillo fired three shots, which felled Yatim, ...


34

You should file a complaint with the police. If you complain to the police then they might do something. If you don't complain then they certainly won't. Are food trucks licensed? You might try complaining to the license authority. However go to the police first because the licence authority are unlikely to do anything without a police complaint. Even ...


31

Can you legally be held responsible for attempted murder if the intended victim is already dead? In the circumstances described in the OP within england-and-wales Yes The offence may be found at s.1 of the Criminal Attempts Act 1981 (1) If, with intent to commit an offence to which this section applies, a person does an act which is more than merely ...


27

No international body has jurisdiction Australia is a sovereign nation which means it has sole jurisdiction over its immigration policy. So, short answer: no international body has jurisdiction. Who does have jurisdiction? As it seems that the decision made is that the points you have been assessed by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP)...


24

The bouncer is employed (or (sub)contracted) by the owner/lessee of premises - someone with the right to evict persons from their private property per the common law rights to exclusive use of one's property. When the bouncer evicts you, they are exercising this right on behalf of and as the agent for the owner, who could do it, but instead has assigned ...


16

From the Federal Racial Discrimination Act 1975: 18C Offensive behaviour because of race, colour or national or ethnic origin (1) It is unlawful for a person to do an act, otherwise than in private, if: (a) the act is reasonably likely, in all the circumstances, to offend, insult, humiliate or intimidate another person or a group of people; and (b) the ...


15

You can attempt to murder a dead man Or conspire to murder them for that matter. australia The precedents in Australia relate to receipt of stolen property that was not, in fact, stolen or drug offences that didn’t actually involve drugs but the principle is the same. However, the law in Australia depends on whether it would be “fair” in the circumstances to ...


11

Let's put to bed the myth of privacy that is at the heart of your question: in R v Sotheren (2001) NSWSC 204 Justice Dowd said “A person, in our society, does not have a right not to be photographed.” In general, you can take photos of people; statues have even less privacy rights. There are limitations mainly related to voyeurism and commercial use, which ...


11

So my understanding is that the phrase "common law" can refer to either the concept of laws established by court precedent or it can refer to a specific body of laws that have been established that way. Yes. Should I just be inferring that from context? Yes. Is there a single body of "common law"? No. Are there distinct bodies of "U.K. common law"...


10

The law is not settled and will shortly be before the High Court (sitting as the Court of Disputed Returns) but theoretically: yes! The provision on Disqualification is s44, specifically subsection (i): Any person who: (i) is under any acknowledgment of allegiance, obedience, or adherence to a foreign power, or is a subject or a citizen or entitled to the ...


10

It has a common meaning across Australia “Reasonable grounds” requires the existence of facts which are sufficient to induce that state of mind (e.g. belief, suspicion) in a reasonable person (George v Rockett (1990) 170 CLR 104; Walsh v Loughnan [1991] 2 VR 351). So, the officer must have the state of mind "that the direction is necessary for the good ...


9

Common law is based on the system of law established in England following the Norman Conquest in 1066. Its principle was simple: that like cases should be treated alike. This differed from the prior laws, which varied between the different local courts, and in doing this, the kings (who, in the beginning, were the ones who held court) avoided arbitrariness. ...


8

You don't. The only proper venue to raise the concern you do would be an Australian court or administrative agency process. Each country is the judge of its own immigration policies. There are no international courts which would have jurisdiction over the dispute you describe.


7

I am not a lawyer; I am not your lawyer. You do not cite a jurisdiction so this makes it very difficult to get a definitive answer. What follows is for Australia but the general principles are common law and would be applicable to other common law jurisdictions except where statues apply or case law has diverged. In the first instance, it seems that you ...


7

Let's put to bed the myth of privacy that is at the heart of your question: in R v Sotheren (2001) NSWSC 204 Justice Dowd said “A person, in our society, does not have a right not to be photographed" So they can ask you to stop; its bad manners if you don't but it is not illegal. If they are the controller of the property then they can stop you filming ...


7

The Queen doesn't need legal rights, she is the law! As per Dale M's answer, Her Majesty doesn't meet the requirements to be a citizen of Australia under the Citizenship Act, nor has she ever been granted that status. Someone else will need to fill in the legal reasons as to whether or not a law like the Migration Act could be enforced against Her Majesty ...


7

This is an excellent explanation. All Australian jurisdictions have (in general) common road rules. In NSW these are enacted by Road Rules 2014 regulation under the Road Transport Act 2013. The relevant provision is Clause 306: 306 Exemption for drivers of emergency vehicles A provision of these Rules does not apply to the driver of an emergency vehicle if: ...


6

It is the lower courts' interpretation of a senior court's judgment—specifically the ratio—that determines what is the precedent. If a court doesn't want its opinion to bind lower courts, it can be clear in its judgment that this is not what was intended. For example, a court could say that this judgment turns on the particular facts of this ...


6

Yes. The AusPat database is an excellent source for looking for Australian patents. I did a quick search for "card game" and came across 276 results fitting those keywords. Not all involve the classic generic-52-card-deck format, but some do. A good example - and one that seems similar to your idea - is "Modified blackjack game using non-standard blackjack ...


6

Companies dissolve by one of two modes: voluntarily or involuntarily. If it's a voluntary dissolution: the assets remaining after paying all the creditors are distributed among the owners according to their ownership percentages or by some other agreement. The successor owner of the IP will be determined at that time. In the case of an involuntary ...


6

Actually, Queen Elizabeth I and Queen Elizabeth II are not sovereigns of any common state. QEI was sovereign of England and Wales and QEII is sovereign of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (among others). The numbering has nothing to do with the states they are sovereign over: it is familial number dating from William I (the Conquerer)...


6

It is certainly true that different states who share a Head of State can have different succession rules. Thus William IV of the United Kingdom was also King of Hannover. The UK allowed female succession, so Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom; Hannover didn't, so he was succeeded by Ernest Augustus there. At the moment, all the Commonwealth Realms ...


5

Firstly, this is actually a really good question - The Australian Constitution grants few explicit protections or rights to people, and it does not protect you from discrimination on the basis of age. In any case, you'll find that it is not a violation of the Age Discrimination Act 2004 (Cth) - see s39. This makes an exemption, amongst others, to the Act ...


5

In most places I imagine the issue would go before a probate judge who would attempt to determine the validity of each presented will, and if both were valid, then they would attempt to reconcile the disparities to the best of their ability. Broadly speaking, the process would look like this (I'm using UK law as an example): You die An individual is chosen ...


5

The quickest way to get the text of Australian judgements is through AustLII. Reading the citation Parties: Tame v New South Wales In this case, the parties are (Clare Janet) Tame and (the State of) New South Wales. Year: [2002] or (2002) There is a subtle distinction between the above years: in brackets [] is generally (but not always) the ...


5

In New South Wales it is entirely legal to film police (or anyone else). However, as discussed (What is considered "public" in the context of taking videos or audio recordings?) audio recording is more restricted: you must either have the permission of all the participants in a conversation or be a party to the conversation. I do not imagine the ...


5

Queen Elizabeth II is not a citizen of Australia, she is the Sovereign of it. The preamble of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act also refers to enactment by the Queen, and thus Her Majesty transcends the personal-instutional level. I would still include her, as Queen of Australia, in the "Australian" category, yes.


5

In NSW and all other Australian jurisdictions lotteries and other games of chance are regulated. See https://www.liquorandgaming.justice.nsw.gov.au/Pages/gaming/competitions/games-of-chance.aspx In general, lottery type games can only be run for the benefit of charities or by registered clubs. Free entry games can be run as trade promotions. Straight ...


5

Wikipedia is pretty comprehensive. As a general rule, the following types of airsoft guns are illegal in all states: Guns capable of fully automatic fire. Guns that outwardly resemble a sub-machine gun or machine pistol. In addition, specific states have further rules e.g. in NSW they are strictly prohibited, whereas in the NT they are otherwise allowed ...


5

I strongly suspect that the answer is that no, this would not work. The validity of the additional grant of citizenship would be evaluated by an Australian court applying Australian law. One of the underlying principles of that body of law is that gifts must be accepted and can be disclaimed. Another is that an adult's legal status cannot normally be ...


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