35

As much as they like Most pieces of legislation have a “dictionary” detailing, for the purposes of that legislation (or generally) what specific words and phrases mean. This can broaden (or narrow) the definition compared to how they are used in normal English. The purpose of this is not to set a trap for the unwary, although this may happen, but to ...


31

A default judgment is a judgment in favor of a party when the opposing party has failed to do something that is required, such as appear before the court. In this instance, defendant's failure was to provide court-ordered documents. See Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 37(b) for various failures to to comply with a court order. Failure to appear in court is ...


25

Where does outer space legally start? International law does not define the edge of space, or the limit of national airspace according to footnotes 2 and 3 of the Kármán line's Wikipedia entry. Footnote 15, referencing the book International Law: A Dictionary by Boleslaw Adam Boczek, offers this: The issue whether it is possible or useful to establish a ...


14

You're thinking of legalism. It can have different meanings -- especially in Chinese legal/philosophical history -- but is the best match to the concept you're describing.


13

100km According to the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale who are generally considered the record-keeping body on such matters, the Kármán line is where space begins and is rounded off to 100km above the Earth’s surface. Of course, this is a Sorites paradox definition because there is no line where Earth’s atmosphere ends. The ground is definitely inside ...


11

The effective limit is whatever the courts will put up with. Legislatures can pass laws that will be overturned by the courts, so the real question is whether a redefinition will be upheld by the courts. It can be difficult to calculate whether a given law will be upheld, or how it will be reinterpreted if challenged in court. Given the current Supreme Court,...


6

You will note that the quoted definition says that person includes a corporation sole, a body corporate, and an unincorporated body What it doesn't say, but almost certainty intends, is that "person" also includes a natural person, that is an ordinary human being with a single body. What is happening here (I think) is that the law is specifying ...


5

Shareholders own the company There may be different classes of shares in a company with different rights (voting, dividends, preferential distribution etc.) but if you own a share you own (part of) the company. Just as a side note, there are companies that are not limited by shares - their ownership structure is different. Similarly, there are unit trusts ...


3

For IRS purposes, "distilled spirit" mean that substance known as ethyl alcohol, ethanol, or spirits of wine in any form (including all dilutions and mixtures thereof from whatever source or by whatever process produced) So it is a distilled spirit, with or without LSD, for those tax purposes. LSD is a controlled substance, see 21 USC 812 (c) ...


3

"Law" refers to rules; "jurisdiction" refers to the situations in which those laws apply. For example, the United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. But for the most part, it only applies within the territorial jursidction of the government that enacted it, i.e., places inside the borders of the United ...


2

Probably the term Legalism is the best short term, as mentioned by others, but to put it into a larger framework, it is part of the second stage of moral reasoning in Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Level 2 (conventional), Stage 4 (Authority and social-order maintaining orientation). This makes it a higher level of reasoning than avoiding punishment ...


2

Third-party has a general meaning but one that can be changed by the contract Third-party means someone who is not a party to the contract nor an agent of one of the parties (such as an employee of one of them). The term came about because most contracts only have two parties and they were historically identified as the first party and the second party ...


1

The ordinance is defining the term "tax" for the narrow purpose of the ordinance itself, which is more narrow the the general definition of the word tax in most respects (since it doesn't include non-ordinance imposes taxes), but broader than the word tax is other respects (since it includes interests and penalties and fees and the like). The terms ...


1

This is paragraph (62) of section 2 (Definitions, part of Chapter I) of the tax ordinance , linked in the question. It seems to define "tax" as equivalent to ":income tax", and to say that it includes various specific assessments and charges, as well as the tax directly on income. These various charges seem to be specified in Chapter IV (...


1

What does it mean as in the the left or right diagram(set/venn diagram) of the attached image- left diagram or the right one? The diagram in the left is a more accurate, although incomplete, representation. That being said, the difference between both diagrams is immaterial because some of the statutory definitions involved are circular, redundant, and ...


1

To me, they are synonymous but england-and-wales legislation often uses "in accordance with" as well. By way of an example: a word search of that phrase in the Merchant Shipping and Maritime Security Act 1997 returns 91 hits, whereas "under an order" and "under regulations" have just three each, and "stipulated" does ...


1

Does The Treaty Apply? The Treaty says (in article VII not Article VI): Each State Party to the Treaty that launches or procures the launching of an object into outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, and each State Party from whose territory or facility an object is launched, is internationally liable for damage to another State Party ...


1

Generally Third Party means "a party that is not party to the contract" It is not the exact number of parties as there could be any number of 2 or more contracting parties. A "third party" usually means that the injured party cannot claim damages stipulated in the contract if the defending party was acting with respect to the non-...


1

What does: "concessions have been extended" mean in this context? Unless the law at issue gives an explicit definition of the term, in the context of contracts, bankruptcy, etc. "concession" means something a party grants to another. Since the excerpt is about "meeting financial commitments", the term "concession" can ...


1

The underlying issue is discussed in Eskridge's book Interpreting law, the main theme of which is that these rules exist in a hierarchy. Hierarchy means that in case of apparent conflict, one thing has precedence over the other, which gives the impression of there being exceptions. The ordinary meaning of "person" does not include "corporation&...


1

I think an appropriate term for what you might be asking is "virtue jurisprudence," which overlaps with philosophical questions of ethics and morals. Aristotle popularized this concept to some extent. Ancient Greeks used the word "Arete" to refer to good morals and ethics, although it more generally can be used to refer to anything that ...


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