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11

The legal term for premarital sex, as a crime, is fornication. I found a paper that gives an extensive and well-referenced history and analysis of such laws: Sweeny, JoAnne. Undead Statutes: The Rise, Fall and Continuing Uses of Adultery and Fornication Criminal Laws. Loyola University Chicago Law Journal 46 (2014), 127–173. http://www.luc.edu/...


8

It can (and has) been argued that some of the post-bellum trials of Germans and Japanese (but no Italians because they were Allies now) proceeded on shaky legal grounds. However, the arguments of your friend are wrong. In addition, many of the cases proceeded on solid legal foundations based on war crimes (e.g. the Commando Order) and treatment of prisoners-...


6

The New York Times reported on the veto which I think that the question is referring to on December 31, 1970. The Congressional Research Service reported on the issue on March 30, 2001 and the pertinent part regarding the litigation over that pocket veto was as follows: President Richard Nixon, on December 24, 1970, exercised a pocket veto over the ...


5

No. The intent of the draft was to protect those who objected to bearing arms for religious/moral reasons from being forced by the government to bear arms against their will (essentially making any draft that didn't have consciencious objector allowance from being Constitutional). The line was removed at drafting because it was redundant: The First ...


5

The Act was enacted on August 2, 1937. Pub. 238, 75th Congress, 50 Stat. 551 It had an effective date of October 1, 1937, specified at Sec. 17: This Act shall take effect on the first day of the second month after the month during which it is enacted. As soon as a law defining a crime is in effect, you can be arrested for that crime. Calder v. Bull, 3 U.S. ...


5

It looks like you're referring to Kennedy v. Sampson. The DC District Court heard the case (364 F. Supp 1075 (1973)) and granted summary judgment to the plaintiff Sen. Edward Kennedy, holding that the veto was invalid and that the bill had become law. The case was appealed to the DC Circuit Court of Appeals (511 F.2d 430 (1974)), which affirmed.


4

In 1945? Not a chance. Basically, the only sexual crime that existed then was rape. In 2019? In New York, it appears the answer is still no. All sexual crimes require “sexual contact”: 3. “Sexual contact” means any touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of a person for the purpose of gratifying sexual desire of either party.  It includes the ...


4

Yes As recently as 6 February 2014 for sure and possibly right up until today in Virginia - http://www.nbcnews.com/news/crime-courts/virginia-bill-decriminalize-sex-outside-marriage-stalls-n23516. According to the article, there were 12 convictions in 2013, all as part of plea-bargains from more serious charges.


4

Passports were required in ancient, medieval, and early modern ages, either for immigration or for emigration or both. However, what was called passport back then might be better characterized as entry and exit visa. As time went on and travel became more common, those mutated into multi-use identity documents. There was a brief period before 1914 when ...


3

As far as I can tell, it was punished severely, but not quite that severely. I found Nevada's 1971 controlled substances statute, AB 107. "Marihuana" appears in Schedule I, the list of drugs which are most tightly restricted (Section 31, subsection 4(j)). Section 65 makes it a crime to possess such substances. Under subsection 1, a first offense ...


3

I'll be referencing the "Minutes of proceedings of the Colonial Conference, 1907" throughout (600+ pg. PDF). The page numbers refer to the ones printed on the page instead of any software page number. It seems that @owjburnham's comment is essentially correct, it is mainly a shift in terminology. It came from a desire to further distinguish self-governing ...


3

No The Enabling Act was a law by which the Reichstag effectively abolished itself - adding legislative power to the government (Article 1, sentence 1). Government laws would be prepared by the Chancellor (Adolf Hitler) and published in the Reichsgesetzblatt (Artical 3, sentence 1). The law expires on the 1st of April 1937 or after the forming of a new ...


3

There are many analogous cases throughout the world, but like the petition you cite, they are not legal, they are political, e.g. the Kautokeino rebellion, the Basque conflict, Turkish-only laws in Turkey, Bantu minorities in Somalia, Jim Crow laws in the US. A legal case would be when parties file a lawsuit in some higher court, to force a government to ...


3

When? There are basically several times to look at when you want to look at the text, and then in what language. The Codex Iustinianus itself is part of the Corpus iuris civilis and contained only laws given by the previous emperors, while other older laws were in the Digesta/Pandecta and the Novellae contained any new imperial laws after 534. The whole ...


2

The language is worded broader: "A victim of [list of crimes] or that victim's representative shall have the following rights as provided by law:" The list is seemingly alphabetically, and covers besides arson injuring people, also aggravated arson & battery, misuse of explosives, negligent use of a deadly weapon, murder, [two other types of ...


2

The short answer is that not many examples of this come to mind in the modern era in democratic, rule of law based legal systems. A full answer is a little complicated and I'm limiting my answer mostly to U.S. legal history. Probably the closest example that is not from a despotic or lawless regime would be the post-WWII trials of participants in the ...


2

As the Oxford PID says, annexation is the acquisition of land/territory from one state (=Souvreigh State, as in it's meaning of country, like the US, not a federal state like Texas) to another. That is the same what Wikipedia says. It also says, that to annex territory, occupation is presupposed. Let's take two more clear examples: The incorporation of the ...


2

To be very straightforward, yes, a police department would very likely have records of their past interactions with you in the form of police reports. They cannot just throw them away because it's been scrubbed from your public record. They detail the interactions the police officer had with you. That being said, those records would not show up in a general ...


2

In terms of the original meaning: it probably doesn't disprove it Lots of the amendments include a bunch of vaguely related things. The fifth amendment, for instance, includes grand jury requirements, double jeopardy protections, self-incrimination protections, due process protections, and a requirement that the government compensates people for property it ...


2

Maybe But that's not what it means now District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), was a landmark decision of the US Supreme Court ruling that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to keep and bear arms, unconnected with service in a militia, for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home, and that the ...


1

Did they not require any kind of passport or identity when traveling between countries before the year 1914? YES Well maybe not require but passports helped with proving one's nationality for at least 500 years before the quoted British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914. According to this Wikipedia article: King Henry V of England [who reigned from ...


1

There have been plenty of cases that were obviously illegal, for example prisoners who had been given a (legally debatable) death sentence being murdered in their cell, shortly before they were due to be executed.


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