49

If the country was defeated in war, the bondholders often lose all their money. Sometimes, though, the conqueror has its own reasons to want the debt to be repaid. If the country came to an end through peaceful negotiation, the same negotiation would decide who becomes responsible for its debts. So, at the end of the U.S. Civil War, the United States ...


7

Stack Exchange has given moderators certain authorizations or powers, but that does not automatically make them agents. The specific provision in the agreement that they are not agents would make it harder to argue that they are in fact agents in a particular case, but if they are in fact acting as agents they might be held to be agents in some situations. ...


6

Yes, explicitly. It even laid out the procedure and method (i.e. on equal footing) of these new states. Specifically, Article IV, Section 3, the "Admissions Clause": New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the ...


3

Specifically in Czechoslovakia's case, the division of debt has been a part of (somewhat complicated) negotiations about the division of federal assets and liabilities. Roughly speaking, the final agreement divided the property and the debt in 2:1 ratio (Czech:Slovak), unless the debt was specific to one of the republics. See e.g. Martin Skaloš: Štátne ...


2

Most countries follow the same pattern: They decide what is illegal, or a crime. And they decide which crimes they prosecute. For example, the USA decided that murder is a crime, but only murders in the USA are prosecuted by the USA. (However, if you commit murder in country X, there is a good chance that the USA will extradite you to X). So your question is ...


2

The patented RSA algorithm (public key exchange) was independently developed by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. However the algorithm had been found much earlier and secretly by Ellis and Cocks. This was eventually revealed, but the RSA patent remained valid until it expired in 2000. The prior art must be known to the patent office before the patent is granted ...


2

In the U.S., the Trademark Dilution Revison Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1125(c), entitles a trademark holder to an injunction against someone who commences use of a mark or trade name in commerce that is likely to cause dilution by blurring or dilution by tarnishment of the famous mark, regardless of the presence or absence of actual or likely confusion, of ...


1

To quote the material that you link: The system makes it possible to protect a mark in a large number of countries by obtaining an international registration that has effect in each of the designated Contracting Parties. Basically, it is the moral equivalent of autofiling an application in all or many member jurisdictions at the same time, which are then ...


1

Section 10 of the US-Constitution effectively bans any member state of the union to have any independent international politics branch: Treaties, alliances, and confederations are contracts between multiple countries. letters of marque are legalizing piracy on enemies of a country Bills of Credit and the regulation on non-fine-metal coinage are regulations ...


1

Importation of prescription drugs by an individual U.S. consumer for personal use is prohibited unless Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. There are however exceptions/restrictions: Prescription drugs, which are made in the U.S. and then exported, can only be returned to the U.S. manufacturer. Under limited circumstances as defined and allowed by ...


1

Yes Although it’s highly unusual. Most bi-lingual contracts have one language being the definitive version. Doing it this way greatly reduces the likelihood of and cost of resolving a dispute since it eliminates arguments over which conflicting version is right. However, parties can contract any way they like and if A has sufficient bargaining powers, they ...


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