Arizona does not license chemists, though they do license pharmacists. There is a law against possession of drug paraphernalia, violation of which is a felony. The law also says
In determining whether an object is drug paraphernalia, a court or
other authority shall consider, in addition to all other logically
relevant factors, the following:
Messaging (and other online communication) are fixed media.
A face-to-face conversation, or a telephone call, does not exist at all - except in the mental recollections of the participants. And those are always very problematic as evidence, because people's recall is inaccurate.
Whereas communication in a fixed medium is durable: a newspaper, ...
Can messages in messaging application be used as evidence to accuse someone?
When you say "accuse" I assume you mean have enough evidence to support a prosecution, as anyone can accuse anyone of anything, so I will answer in that vein from the perspective of england-and-wales.
A major tool in the law enforcement armoury is cell site analysis which ...
"Commercial disparagement" is about statements that a person makes, knowing that they are false. The words on the T-shirt are neither true nor false. The T-shirt might be illegal in Singapore because of the word "fuck". In the US, it is totally protected by the First Amendment.
Congratulations, intrepid legal enthusiast or learner!
What you'll need
A legal dictionary, especially if you're just getting started.
If you don't own one, you can try Black's Law Dictionary
A little bit of patience and time.
Or maybe a lot, depending on the particular case and the particular question you're trying to answer.
Maybe a normal dictionary, ...
Why do attorneys have these?
Originally to use as references, although some kinds of books (e.g. case law reporters, Shepard's citations, Martindale Hubble directories, and serial analysis of case law like Am. Jur.) are rarely used that way any more.
When I started practice in the mid-1990s, it cost several hundred dollars an hour to access online legal ...
To paraphrase the Princess Bride: "I don't think those words mean what you think they do".
The "truther-activist", "sovereign citizen", and "Citizen vs. Human Being" concepts will only hurt you. It has never succeeded, to my knowledge; It has failed multiple times.
Let me tell you a little about myself to illustrate what I mean: I am a software developer (...
A government, in this case the Brazilian government, cannot effectively control what people, particularly people who are not its citizens, do in other countries. If people are able to obtain and ship outside of Brazil supplies of the plant, then the Brazilian government cannot stop them doing research on it.
However, the Brazilian government can largely ...
Why does someone need to know?
Supreme Court decisions are effective to all cases at trial or on direct appeal when decided, so long as the issue it resolves are raised in the trial court.
Judges generally don't suspend cases because a case that could change the law is pending. If the decision comes out shortly after the trial, the judge can overturn the ...
There is only one way for certain:
Do the supposedly unlawful thing
Get sued (civil) or prosecuted (criminal)
Go to court - if you win it wan't illegal
If you lose, appeal to the next appellate court in the chain
In one of those courts refuses to hear your appeal - it was illegal
Repeat as necessary until you reach the Supreme Court - if ...
As was mentioned in a comment, in the United States, businesses are generally registered at the state level. The information collected, and the extent to which or manner in which the public has access to it, varies from state to state. There may still be states where that's a paper-only process, but I'd guess in most of them it's accessible online, at least ...
The quickest way to get the text of Australian judgements is through AustLII.
Reading the citation
Tame v New South Wales
In this case, the parties are (Clare Janet) Tame and (the State of) New South Wales.
There is a subtle distinction between the above years: in brackets  is generally (but not always) the ...
When someone registers at your website, they enter a contract with you. You need an email address, because you need to be able to contact them (at least for the password recovery). You probably want to verify the email address, otherwise you might not be able to contact them in the future. So the email verification is required as part of the performance of ...
...many [countries] forbid even the possession of software for "hacking" despite intentions
That is not the case in the united-kingdom where accessing a computer, and possessing the tools to do it, are only offences if the activity is unauthorised. In fact, private entities and government departments are encouraged to carry out authorised ...
If you wrote for example "I had thoughts about taking the axe from my garage and decapitating my neighbour", and your neighbour read that, he would reasonably be worried and contact the police. I would take that as a death threat, and the death threat is by itself illegal. There would be some range where I could claim that you were making a death threat and ...
Let's roll back a couple of conceptual steps: before deciding how to interpret a judgement you should know what a judgement is.
What is law?
I quote from Australian Business Law 2002:
The law is a body of generally accepted principles, established by Parliament (i.e. by our representatives) and by the courts. Law is therefore made by us (the men and ...
No. Nor would the United States recognize your degree if you got them from the UK or France, or even from within the United States. The United States does not legally protect or sanction PhD holders as such, and has no role in the awarding of nor forming guidelines for PhD programs (other than funding, directly or indirectly, much of the research that is ...
It primarily depends on the title that you have to the house: are you "joint tenants with right of survivorship". This could have happened when you bought the house; it also could have been done after the fact in various ways. In that case, the house is outside of your wife's estate (which, under the circumstances, is divided between children and ...
Given the following:
We know the name of the plaintiff,
The name is likely to be unique so that there won't be too many cases involving a different party with the same name, and
The plaintiff is a company so it is not likely to have been involved in an overwhelming number of cases (as opposed to e.g. the IRS);
The approach I would use would be to search a ...
I overdosed on an illegal drug and called an ambulance. I was honest and told them what I took.
You stated that you had possession, and had recently used a notable amount, of an illegal substance.
That is reasonable cause (or "probable cause" in some jurisdictions) for a search, regardless of a warrant, and they do not need permission.
Why do you want to know?
I think that the reason this question seems so obscure is because it does not involve sufficient context and specificity. It can't be answered until one knows the reason that it matters to know if a rule is new or not. In a particular context, these questions usually have obvious and clear answers. The murkiness arises only when one ...
Unfortunately this is one of the reasons lawyers exist.
The law can be in statute or in case law. Determining legality involves an element of predicting what a court would do if you litigated the issue, which might be something different to what they've done in the past, and you need an experienced lawyer to take a somewhat-reasonable guess at that.
You can find all the documents in the United States in federal court on PACER. Pacer does charge if you use volume. Many states have similar systems.
For the Supreme Court you can find them on SCOTUSblog.
Public Law ##-### is a reference to a slip law -- an actual bill, as passed by Congress and signed (or vetoed, if the veto was overridden) by the President. The first number is the number of the Congress that passed it, the second the number of the law in that Congress. (the "Public" is in contrast with private bills, which are things like "XYZ person, who ...
Freedom of Religion Concerns
I doubt that this policy would be held to be unlawful on First Amendment freedom of religion grounds. Indeed, such requirements usually exclude church-related service.
Also, I don't see how this policy discriminates against your religion specifically. It seems on its face to apply to all religions equally.
Even if "Church-...
The only really authoritative source of answers is a court interpreting the laws on an as applied basis (and there are many U.S. traffic laws, one in every state and sometimes additional local ones, not a single U.S. traffic law).
An answer from a government official or police department is not authoritative, although it may be informative of how the ...
You need to look at the domain registrar's TOS to determine their polices for canceling a domain after the fact in the way they did, i.e. claiming the domain is "premium" and as such allowing them to cancel and raise the price and re-offer the domain.
The registrar may, in fact, have such a policy in their TOS that you agreed to when you opened an account ...
You are missing at least several important sources of authority, which include:
(1) The United States Constitution;
(2) the set of regulations issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations at Title 37, Chapter I;
(3) applicable international treaties;
(4) case law with the most ...
Question #1: is this even possible? Is there some sort of central
database which contains details of all recent court cases involving
custody of children in New York City?
Yes, it is possible.
The court clerk for each respective court in the State of New York maintains a list of every case pending that court that goes back many years in electronic ...
Credit card surcharges, where a customer is charged extra for using a credit card, are prohibited in 11 states. There are also 10 states that allow merchants to offer cash or non-credit discounts, and at least in those states there is increased awareness among consumers that credit card companies charge fees. There is no law requiring credit card companies ...