7

Yes. The jurisdiction I am familiar with is England and Wales. Conviction requires evidence (witness testimony is evidence) which proves the case "beyond reasonable doubt". It is open to the jury to find the witness so convincing that they find that they are sure the defendant committed the crime. In general of course, prosecutors prefer to have some ...


5

Attorneys are normal officials (Beamte), so the laws about officials apply to them. So e.g. for North Rhine-Westphalia (there are similar laws in the other states) § 47 Gesetz über die Beamtinnen und Beamten des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (Law about officials of the state North Rhine-Westphalia): (1) Beamtinnen und Beamte sind von Amtshandlungen zu ...


4

In the US, Yes, generally In the US an accused can, in most cases, be convicted on the testimony of a single witness, who can be the victim. There are a few exceptions. Article II section 3 of the US Constitution provides: Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and ...


4

Canada's local court systems and procedural rules vary, especially at the lowest level, by province. So, I'm just stating some general principals. General speaking legal arguments are limited to closing arguments of the parties after all of the evidence has been presented by both sides (because this limits legal arguments to those with evidentiary support ...


3

Regarding concern one: I don't know much of anything about historical landmarks and how they get exempted from certain laws. However, I can tell you that the law generally prefers safety over preserving historical value. It is highly unlikely that a court would ever consider a plant that has existed for any number of years to be of more value than a ...


3

In general, the perpetrator can be sued by anyone who suffered harm as a result of his actions. The fact that he's also being prosecuted criminally doesn't change that, nor does it matter whether or not the victim is a "celebrity". The perpetrator could, for instance, be sued by any or all of: the victim himself, for his pain and suffering and loss of ...


3

There's nothing he can really write that any court would have to listen to - after all, from the court's perspective, he could have been lying when he wrote it down. And following orders is generally not a defense (although if he was under actual duress, like they were threatening to kill him if he didn't do it, that could be a defense.) But being a pawn ...


2

NO (mostly). Servitude means that the employer, or owner of the indenture, or whatever, can use physical force to make the indentee carry out the work given. If the indentee runs away they can be arrested and forcibly returned. This is distinct from the law of contracts. If Alice agrees to provide labour for Bob and subsequently fails to fulfil the contract ...


1

Yes It’s called a contract - in return for some benefit, you agree to limit your future actions. You can contract for yourself but you generally bind another to a contract although legal guardians can make decisions for their wards.


1

Except for extradition, this is no different than if the alleged perpetrator were a local When person A reports a crime, the relevant authorities in country A (usually the police but, depending on the crime, other organisations may have jurisdiction) will investigate and decide if they wish to arrest and charge person B. If they do, they apply to the court ...


1

I assume, based on the tags that you use (criminal law, penal law) and expressions like "press charges", "prove innocent" that you are asking about criminal prosecution, and not a civil lawsuit, so that words implying "suit" are in error. A suing B is radically different from B being prosecuted by C because of some crime against A. Europe is a big place ...


1

What is the purpose of increased penalties under various specific circumstances? It has to do with both offender's mental state at the time of committing the crime, and the increased vulnerability to which society is subjected by that criminal conduct. In a context of traffic violations, texting while driving reflects the driver's reckless disregard of ...


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