35

While software is often the subject of pirating, the term is also used generally for unauthorized use of any copyrighted material. It turns out that this terminology is very old. Wikipedia notes that this sense of the word piracy is attested as far back as 1603 CE and was used as part of the language of a copyright treaty as early as 1886 CE. In particular,...


32

The term "illegal" is also often used for actions that the law prohibits, but that give rise to civil liability, rather than criminal prosecution. We see such use a lot in questions on Law.SE. One also says that a person "is liable" when there are grounds for a civil suit against that person. One might also say that such a person "has commited a tort" or "...


24

Jurist (in the American sense) means a lawyer, judge, or other expert in law. From Google Search:


24

“Illegal” is not limited to criminal matters Illegal and unlawful are synonymous and refer to any conduct which is in breach of any law. So: Murder is illegal and a crime Stopping in a No Stopping zone is illegal and a civil offence Breaking a contract is illegal and exposes the breacher to civil damages


17

Lawyers and judges are both Legal Professionals


15

You are looking for extraterritorial jurisdiction: As the term indicates, it connotes the exercise of jurisdiction, or legal power, outside territorial borders. This can include nations claiming jurisdiction over crimes in nearby bodies of water and to specific categories of crimes (such as sexual offenses against underage victims) committed by or ...


8

Legalese The purpose of a legal document is to set out the rights and responsibilities so that: they can understand them, a third party (e.g. a judge) can rule on them in the event of a dispute. These two requirements are often in tension. We have about 1,000 years of legal precedent where certain words and phrases (sometimes in Latin rather than English)...


8

The other answers are good, but no one touched on the other part of the question relating to why people pirate software. (Not sure if the why is off topic for LSE, but I saw it wasn't addressed) Some of the reasons I'm familiar with are The pirate doesn't have the money to pay for the software The pirate wouldn't normally buy the software, but would use it ...


7

Comments here and here suggest that "irreconcilable differences" can be used to explain "withdrawal when the client fails to compensate the attorney", but it can mean many other things. The point of the phrase is to not divulge the reason. Amidst the various scenarios discussed under Rule 1.16(b), subsections (3) and (4) permit withdrawal when the client ...


7

The phrase officer of the court means (according to dictionary.law.com) any person who has an obligation to promote justice and effective operation of the judicial system, including judges, the attorneys who appear in court, bailiffs, clerks and other personnel. As officers of the court lawyers have an absolute ethical duty to tell judges the truth, ...


7

"Pirating" software means gaining unlicensed or unauthorized access to software. The "crackers" (as they are known in the underground) who create these illicit method of access do so in many ways. They can either create "software cracks" which bypass the authentication mechanisms. Or they create "Keygens" which generate valid keys for the software. Both of ...


6

No, it means the following are eligible: Natural born citizens Citizens of the United States, at the time of the adoption of the constitution The second part was to allow people that were citizens of the US in 1788 (but were obviously not "natural born citizens", since the US didn't exist when they were born) to be eligible for the Presidency. Check out ...


6

There is not a single legal term that encompasses all of these offenses in most jurisdictions. Instead, there are a number of different offenses that could apply based upon whether or not there is sexual contact, the nature of the coercion involved, and certain other details of the offense. To use a concrete and precise example, I provide the exact language ...


6

In a deposition, attorneys are supposed to keep their objections short and refrain from making an objection that indicates to the witness how he should answer. A question might be objectionable because it lacks foundation, because it is compound, because it calls for speculation, etc. Example 2, for instance, could be said to assume that Ms. Redacted was ...


5

Legalese is unnecessary. My first mortgage was from a bank that prided itself on not using it - the closing documents were about twenty pages, and the seller's attorney was amazed at how plainly written my bank's stuff was. My favorite was the letter of confirmation they sent when we went into contract. It was one line that essentially said, "if the seller ...


5

Counterfeit is a fake. It's made to look like the real thing. Pirated is an unauthorized manufacture of the real thing. Contraband is a thing that is imported (or exported) illegally. This can also include things that are explicitly illegal, such as narcotics or firearms, for instance in a prison, even if they are legal to import or export (as mentioned ...


5

There is no generalisation. The "articles" are articles of clerkship. The context permits the implication of that specific usage, in the same way that talking about "cars" at a racetrack isn't a generalisation of the word "car" - it's an implication of specifically racecars. Ancestry.co.uk explains well what the articles actually are. Briefly, they are ...


5

Everything In the sense that it means every single legal claim that a person could or might have over or in the thing. Specifically, ”right” means a legal right that can arise in all sorts of ways, ”title” means legal ownership and ”interest” means both of the above plus anything else that may be related to the thing no matter how remote or esoteric.


5

None The contractual chain is you <-> warranty company <-> (potentially others you don’t know about) <-> service provider. Should something go wrong, you would sue your warranty company who might (it is up to them) then sue the service provider. Notwithstanding, it’s likely the service company owes you a duty of care and would be directly liable ...


4

In this specific situation, the law in question is criminal law, so the term you are looking for is the principle of personality. This is usually codified alongside the principle of territoriality (which you mention in the first paragraph), the protective principle and the principle of universality. All of this applies to criminal law only.


4

In context I suspect it means magistrate.


4

Newspapers often say things that are not technically true by the standards of legal usage, especially in headlines which must be brief. "Legalize" is a popular or political concept, not a legal one. Instead, the legal concept underlying such court actions is that (1) an existing prohibition is unconstitutional, and thus such a law cannot exist, and (2) ...


4

There isn't a difference. The terminology in England and Wales that means the same thing is "litigant in person", with the source of these Latin phrases have abandoned them in favor of plain English terminology. The variation of usage, however, does not necessarily break down on a federal v. state court basis. Pro se is the majority usage, but the variation ...


4

In my country, pirating is fairly common. It has many reasons, including GDP per capita is much lower than in advanced countries distribution costs makes prices even higher than in its original country our language is different, so it's more difficult to spot piracy and enforce good behaviour our country is small enough that only the largest publishers put ...


4

This is sense A. 1b of ‘special’ in the Oxford English Dictionary: Designating a thing: specific, individual or particular to the specified person, thing or set. Now rare (in later use tending to merge with or be understood as sense A. 4a). Special damages are those that can be specified by reference to particular expenses. They are not exceptional or ...


4

Tortious might be an adjective you could use. The word essentially means a civil violation (although in a strict legal definition, I believe there also need to be some kind of proveable damages). I usually only see it in the phrase "tortious interference", but I suspect a legal audience at least would understand its meaning alone.


4

It has to be 'liquidated damages', since a penalty clause is unenforceable. It has to have a reasonable relation to the party's legitimate interest. The point is that it has to represent a good faith estimate of the actual damage.


3

The term originated in Anglo-Norman legal usage in the 14th C., and advers (that spelling) has the meaning "acting against or in opposition (to someone or something); opposing, antagonistic, actively hostile". It is often used in "adverse party" (and related spellings) meaning "the opposing party". The specific collocation "adverse possession" meaning "...


3

...in this case the officer has "definite cause." Why is probable used? "Probable cause" is a standard for when a property search can be conducted or a warrant issued. According to the Wikipedia article you linked to, Ballentine's Law Dictionary defines probable cause as a reasonable amount of suspicion, supported by circumstances sufficiently strong to ...


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