The patented RSA algorithm (public key exchange) was independently developed by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. However the algorithm had been found much earlier and secretly by Ellis and Cocks. This was eventually revealed, but the RSA patent remained valid until it expired in 2000.
The prior art must be known to the patent office before the patent is granted ...
Does The Treaty Apply?
The Treaty says (in article VII not Article VI):
Each State Party to the Treaty that launches or procures the launching
of an object into outer space, including the moon and other celestial
bodies, and each State Party from whose territory or facility an
object is launched, is internationally liable for damage to another
State Party ...
W.r.t. form W-8BEN, the instructions / explanation for the form are here. As far as the tax treaty is concerned, the document is here, and the technical explanation is here. You will have to figure out under what treaty provision you can claim a benefit to put on line 10, or hire a specialist in the Egyptian-American tax situation for figure out how this ...