There are several treason and sedition crimes in federal law all of which are defined by statute.
Treason offenses pertain to acts in furtherance of a foreign country or sometimes more specifically a foreign country with which the United States is at war (which is the legal definition of an "enemy"). These include Sections 2381, ...
No. The immigration applicant is generally not entitled to his or her attorney fees in this situation, even though the government is violating one of its own laws.
The Black Letter Law Question
The Right To Fees Depends On The Legal Theory Advanced
A consistent answer doesn't exist at the level of generality of the title question.
Yes and No. The Federal U.S. Government as well as each individual state and territory claim Soverign Immunity to a limited degree. In the case of Federal Government, they claim Soverign Immunity to a near limitless degree (more on this in a moment), while States and Territories claim "State Soverign Immunity" which grants them immunity with ...