In Australia, teachers are permitted to photocopy 10% or one chapter of a textbook, whichever is largest, for educational purposes without permission from the publisher.
In the Copyright Act 1986, it states that an educational institution does not infringe on copyright when it is not software or anything used in a broadcast, it is for the educational institution for education purposes only, a remuneration notice is given, and other conditions I am not going to mention here, otherwise this would get too long.
Also in the Copyright Act 1986, it states that a 'reasonable amount' is "10% of the number of words in the work; or if the work is divided into chapters—the number of words copied exceeds, in the aggregate, 10% of the number of words in the work, but the reproduction contains only the whole or part of a single chapter of the work."
But, I couldn't find anything mentioning Copyright Act 1968 students. If a student, specifically a high school student, owned a textbook and the PDF version of it, are they allowed to share the PDF version of the textbook with other students that don't own the same textbook for educational purposes? (e.g. a study group, student asks for a resource). Does this specific use case go under use by an 'educational institution'?
- Copyright Act 1986 (Cth) pt IVA div 4 sub-div 113P para 1. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2021C00407
- Copyright Act 1986 (Cth) pt II div 10 para 2A. https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2021C00407
Some background information is that the specific state is Western Australia and the purpose of sharing it is for educational purposes.