10

Being outside of IR35 means one is considered a (self-employed) contractor, not an employee, and as such will not have income tax and national insurance contributions deducted under PAYE. HMRC require the NINO and Ltd Co details to cross-reference the payments declared in the public sector's accounts with the Ltd Co's accounts to ensure (a) they match, (b) ...


7

Stack Exchange has given moderators certain authorizations or powers, but that does not automatically make them agents. The specific provision in the agreement that they are not agents would make it harder to argue that they are in fact agents in a particular case, but if they are in fact acting as agents they might be held to be agents in some situations. ...


7

You missed a bit: Unless, of course, the patient was a private patient and the doctor accepted half a guinea for his trouble: As well as the state-run National Health Service (which is generally free to most patients) the UK also has a number of private health care providers where patients pay, for example, to be treated sooner than they would if they went ...


6

I know that in many countries, including the US, the UK, and most, perhaps all, of Europe, it is common for houses to be sold while still under construction, so no such legal prohibition exists (or at least is enforced) in any of those countries. I have never heard of any country which has a general law against such a practice, but I cannot be sure for all ...


6

Yes, explicitly. It even laid out the procedure and method (i.e. on equal footing) of these new states. Specifically, Article IV, Section 3, the "Admissions Clause": New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the ...


5

The NHS system was introduced in the UK in 1948. I think Lord Devlin is referring mainly to the system before the NHS was introduced. Before 1948 doctors would charge patients a set fee for a consultation but if the patient was poor the doctor might decide not to accept a fee. Hence no consideration and so no contract. Although Lord Devlin is writing in 1963,...


4

we would like to know whether we have sufficient legal grounds to sever/terminate/exit this contract with Superior Management Co.*, if the company does not mutually agree to do so. No. In that event the HOA is stuck with the contract at least for the remaining part of the current period. The HOA's concern that the provider could breach the contract by ...


3

This practice is probably not illegal, but I think it is at best ethically dubious. The invoice specifies ""Advising in relation to employment agreement with X", but according to the question no advice about X was given or even asked for, and while advice about Y was discussed, no such advice was given. That suggests that the asker owes the ...


2

In copyright law, such an app is a joint work, and each developer is a co-author. Either may use or license the work, but any profits are jointly owned, and in the absence of any specific agreement to the contrary, must be split equally. If one co-author is marketing the work, and sharing the proceeds equally with the othe co-author, s/he is acting legally ...


2

presumably due to a software glitch You can prove that? I’ll give you several other equally “presumable” scenarios: the Post Office lost it. It happens and if the bank can show they posted it, that’s your problem. it was stolen from your mailbox. You can prove you keep your mailbox locked? you got it and misfiled it and forgot about it. you got it, missed ...


2

Yes, a contract implied in fact can supersede a written contract: if it both (1) arises after the parties have entered into their initial agreement and (2) if the subject matter of the agreement is not subject to the statutes of frauds (i.e. to a statutory requirement that agreements of this kind must always be in writing). A course of dealings before a ...


1

Can an apartment charge me a pet deposit/fee despite specifying in the lease that no deposit or fee would be necessary? No. The terms of a signed lease supersede company's policy that is stated elsewhere. The matter would require a more detailed review if the lease incorporates by reference that specific policy. The lease is not even voidable by the ...


1

Section 10 of the US-Constitution effectively bans any member state of the union to have any independent international politics branch: Treaties, alliances, and confederations are contracts between multiple countries. letters of marque are legalizing piracy on enemies of a country Bills of Credit and the regulation on non-fine-metal coinage are regulations ...


1

Yes Although it’s highly unusual. Most bi-lingual contracts have one language being the definitive version. Doing it this way greatly reduces the likelihood of and cost of resolving a dispute since it eliminates arguments over which conflicting version is right. However, parties can contract any way they like and if A has sufficient bargaining powers, they ...


1

You can’t I’m sorry to hear about your circumstances but they are, unfortunately, yours. The fact that you or a family member is sick or has otherwise suffered misadventure does not give you an excuse for avoiding your contractual obligations; in this case, to pay the fee by the due date. In fact, as I read it, the due date for payment had come and gone ...


1

You didn't form a contract in the sense of a legal document stating your intentions and terms. Instead, you formed what the courts call an "implied in fact" contract, where your agreement to the terms is implied by your actions. You may not have believed you were agreeing to pay for anything, but contract law generally ignores evidence about what ...


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